Let's deconstruct this definition: a rule is âfixedâ meaning that it does not change regardless of the situation. Figure 3.1 provides a visual overview of this chapter. HINT: The teacher may not have to buy the initial pencils, since pencils frequently can be found on the floor when they have rolled away under another desk. When classroom management issues arise, the teacher has procedures to address the concern in an efficient, fair, and consistent way (Shellard & Protheroe, 2000; Thomas & Montgomery, 1998). The following factors affecting classroom management are described. Classroom Management It is possible the most difficult aspect of teaching for many beginning teachers is managing students’ behavior. Effective teachers have a minimum number of classroom rules, which tend to focus on expectations of how to act toward one another, maintain a safe environment, and participate in learning (Marzano et al., 2003; McLeod et al., 2003; Thompson, 2002). If one student has a learning disability, you may need to spend more one-on-one time with this student or allow a development technician to work with him. There is no magic number of rules that govern a classroom; rather, it is the clear establishment of fair, reasonable, enforceable, and consistently applied rules that makes a difference in classrooms. Classroom management and organization are intertwined. Know the protocol for what to do, for example, diabetics, bee stings, epileptic seizures, etc. Mandrel has several rules that he feels are important; suggest ways he can consolidate or reword them. The mentor suggested organizing the rules into a table (figure 3.3) to make sure they met the criteria for being a good rule. What an effective teacher does not do is react to an entire class for a rule infraction by a single student. However, the pencil sharpener and the trashcan may be a good pairing if the pencil sharpener tends to break regularly, spilling its contents on the floor; this way shavings fall into the trash instead. Factors Influencing Effective Organizational Behavior. Report back to students how well they did changing activities. After you have identified your preferences for classroom order, it is time to develop … . The classroom environment is influenced by the guidelines established for its operation, its users, and its physical elements. Place them on the layout first. Of course there is some flexibility, but keeping a list of rules to a minimum will help Mandrel enforce them. Create wall organizers with identified bins for class assignments so that students can pick up missed work after a late arrival or an absence. The overall suggestion would be to keep Rules 1 and 2 and add one new rule about classroom neatness. 8:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. If the teacher takes no action to address disruptive or disengaged students, his mentor checked the box for âNone.â, Off-Task Behaviors (Note # of students and describe behavior. Address He indicated that drills, starting morning work, and walking in the hall were fine, so he crossed those off the list, too. The environment can have both noticeable and unnoticeable effects on how well you can manage the classroom and how well the students listen. Effective teachers decorate the room with student work, they arrange the furniture to promote interaction as appropriate, and they have comfortable areas for working (Kohn, 1996). She asked him to recall what he had shared with her about the attendance/lunch routine. For example, if you have a full classroom of 30 students, then the students in the back will not hear you as well. Looking together at the list, they decided to prioritize what routines should be developed and taught early on and which ones could be added later. The way you manage the classroom may trigger something from the home life, potentially causing the child to shut down or open up. Effective teachers have higher expectations for how students are to conduct themselves in the classroom than their less effective colleagues (Stronge et al., 2003). This also accounts for windows and other students that can cause distractions. for the different subjects. This sampling of findings highlights the complexity of teaching as it relates to classroom management. No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in Factors Affecting Classroom Management - Chapter Summary. In driver education there is a substantial focus on the mechanics of driving and the rules of the road, but not very much attention is given to keeping the automobile functioning. As students mastered a routine and became comfortable with it, a new one would be added. They responded with cheering that was short, and they quickly refocused. Thus, the result of established procedures is more time for teaching and learning. He had one bin for his morning activities and another one for the afternoon. The first flat tire or dead battery becomes a significant learning experience. Reread the teacher scenario at the beginning of this chapter and the bits of information shared on the form with examples about Mandrel, the fictitious teacher in the scenario. The tools presented in this section of the chapter can be used to identify areas of strength and weakness to support growth in the effective implementation of classroom management and organization. By placing the desk in the back of the room, Mandrel is still able to see his students, but he has now created a space where he can work individually with a student without having the student or himself in the class' spotlight. All of these factors will help in boosting the confidence of students. 1703 North Beauregard St. Effective teachers expertly manage and organize the classroom and expect their students to contribute in a positive and productive manner. some students clapped and cheered, but gained on-task behavior quickly, Moved right into mathematics lesson on subtraction with regrouping . factors influencing student learning are numerous and diverse. All other responsibilities are subordinate to this. This might mean that a family member is in town, causing them to get excited easily and not focus. . Rule 7 can be included in the explanation of what it means to be prepared for class. . Both novice and experienced teachers consider classroom management to be a high priority and an area of concern (Sokal, Smith, & Mowat, 2003). . The following graphic organizer (Figure 3.2) is one way of conceptualizing how the components of the Quality of Classroom Management and Organization fit together. There seems to be more potential for congestion on the left-hand side of the room and in the back than in the front or to the right. The folders held the book, papers, sample, etc. Teachers should keep in mind contextual factors about the school and classroom environment. further elaboration on issues raised in the discussion of Mandrel's case. occur). Place scissors, tape, stapler, hole punch, calculators, rulers, and other commonly needed items in a common place that students can access on their own. Classroom management is when a teacher exhibits complete control over their classroom through a series of strategies and techniques that encourage positive student behaviour. classroom management styles, their internal beliefs about education, and the influence of external factors such as mentorship, teacher induction, and their principal’s leadership style. . Or it might mean that their parents are fighting and the student doesn't feel well and ignores you. When rules such as âtalk in an indoor voiceâ are made, it is more difficult to enforce them. Classroom organization is evident in a room even if no one is present. Contextual factors from the classroom environment include the dimensions of the physical space, its layout and the available equipment.Contextual planning for a new, spacious school building that is outfitted with the latest technology will look very different from planning for an older school with divider walls and limited supplies. Mandrel could clearly explain his attendance/lunch request procedure and indicated that he had modeled it after the one his cooperating teacher had used during student teaching. The topic of this page is classroom organization. Effective teachers think about the little details that enhance the use of available space in the classroom as well as the big issues. He has a combination of fixed features (gray items on Figure 3.5) and movable furniture. Some factors are to be performed by organization such as human and cultural factors, technology, natural recourses, economic factors, regulatory measures, markets, management philosophy, organizational culture (Goals, Value, Beliefs & Norms), organizational climate, motivated behavior and teamwork, structure, technological and physical resources, financial resources, leadership style. When the class was recognized for behaving appropriately, it seemed to encourage more of the desired behavior. When a rule is broken, an effective teacher is prepared to address the problem. Mandrel has several rules that he feels are important. Write a daily agenda for students to know what to expect in terms of the day's objective (see Chapter 5 on writing informational objectives), activities, and homework. Worse yet, he knows that he did not do a very good job enforcing them. The Authors' Perspective is provided as one way to reflect on the information presented. Post fire and tornado information in the room. Nonetheless, rules establish the boundaries for behavior (Nakamura, 2000), and consistency in their implementation is essential to effective classroom management. Together these structural and interpersonal elements contribute to the overall classroom management and ultimately to the unique climate and culture of every classroom. Effective classroom management is being to implement and maintain classroom discipline in an effective manner. When it comes to human resource management there are several factors that affect day-to-day operations. Had the students tell about previous learning . In essence, routines shape the classroom climate. . This makes it easy to remove in order to clean the chalkboard. Mandrel wants to be able to see his students at all times even if he is working with a group at a table or at his desk. by fridah mwaniki njveftsirv of nairbmh mkiivii, ,rjo*ov a research project reportsubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirementfor the award of … Definition, Characteristics, Roles, Types. The physical arrangement of the classroom can affect both student and teacher behavior, and a well structured classroom management plan of design has the ability to improve learning and behavior. Your ApproachHow you set up rules in your classroom will determine if students keep those rules or not. Then students decorated the cards with a picture of their favorite activity to do outside of school. The students made a smooth transition to the next activity. If you want students to collaborate in small groups, for example, organize them around tables or clusters of desks. During each five-minute cycle, the mentor watched and listened carefully for one full minute to get a clear sense of what was happening in the classroom, and recorded her notes during the four minutes before the next sampling of information. In talking about classroom management and student achievement, it may help to think of the teacher as the driver of the car who needs to respond to the passengers' needs in order to ensure that they reach their destination. Mandrel and his mentor have been working on classroom management issues, which influence his expectations for student behavior. He could combine the rules to create a new rule: âKeep the classroom and materials neat.â In the explanation of the rule, Mandrel can explain that this includes no eating because crumbs and sticky substances tend to get everywhere even when someone is being careful. Make it brightest at the white board or on you. However, he tends to use verbal interventions when students are being disruptive or have the potential to disrupt the learning of others. The purpose of implementing classroom management strategies is to enhance prosocial behavior and increase student academic engagement (Emmer & Sabornie, 2015; Everston & Weinstein, 2006). Effective teachers create focused and nurturing classrooms that result in increased student learning (Marzano et al., 2003; Shellard & Protheroe, 2000). Effective teachers tend to react in several ways, including the following: positive reinforcement that points to the desired behavior, consequences that punish the negative behavior, a combination of reinforcement and consequences, or indirectly responding to the behavior such that the student is reminded of why a rule is important. Effective teachers teach expectations to students and reinforce the desired behaviors with their verbal and nonverbal cues. Also, this is helpful when a new student arrives in class who may not have all the supplies needed. Students wind up keeping this board ever changing. Classroom management is the process by which teachers and schools create and maintain appropriate behavior of students in classroom settings. They invest the time at the start of the school year to teach the routines. Politics in Organizational Behavior. This works well when students must go to the equipment (e.g., science lab) versus taking the equipment to their desks. It is simply not possible to regulate all behavior with written rules, so having broader ones helps to cover more behavior. Furniture arrangements, location of materials, displays, and fixed elements are all part of organization. Before students even put away their bags and coats, they move their magnet to the appropriate lunch choice column (Figure 3.8). 4 Key Forces Affecting Organizational Behavior. At a more appropriate time (e.g., end of the lesson) the student can return the borrowed pencil and sharpen the one that was left (Thompson, 2002). 1703 North Beauregard St. The Reflect on the Teacher questions are provided to encourage interactive and reflective reading and application of the Handbook for Qualities of Effective Teachers. If the room is equipped with a monitor for PowerPoint presentations, use the first slide to identify the title and the second slide the goals; this not only organizes the students, but also reminds the teacher as well. This will help them feel like they had a say in creating the assignment. They can be moved about later on the diagram as needed, but they do encompass the largest area in most classrooms. Perhaps Mandrel could try praising desired behaviors instead of relying so heavily on tally marks. 2003). Adapting in this field is important because at a moments notice new legislation can be passed with an immediate effective date or corporate polices … Visibly disengaged would include students who are daydreaming, doodling, staring out the window or otherwise not focusing on the teacher's assigned tasks, but who are not distracting other students. Part of Mandrel's challenge is the physical space arrangement; the other part of the challenge is classroom management. Have a can of sharpened pencils near the pencil sharpener. Keep a list of all students who may require medical attention in your grade book. Webster's dictionary defines a rule as âa fixed principle that determines conductâ (McKechnie, 1983, p. 1585). This goes the same for assignments. Additionally, the group worktable near the cubbies is in the way when students line up to exit from either door. In terms of the other two items, Mandrel said he just did what seemed to fit at the time. There are various pros and cons to placing the teacher's desk in the front of the room. If traffic is a problem, limit the number of students who may be at any of those locations after they finish their work. On the first day of school, students were given a piece of paper the size of a business card that was affixed to a magnet of the same size (available at most office supply stores). However, if something is an absolute, such as âNo gum chewing,â then it is simpler to just say so. He selected a teacher with whom he has good rapport and who is willing to meet regularly with him. If you plan on an individualized, self-paced curriculum, you might set up learning stations.The physical layout should also reflect you. The environment doesn't allow them to sit closer. Placing materials near the pencil sharpener may seem like a good idea, until one considers that at the start of a lesson this area may become congested with some students retrieving materials for their group and others waiting to use the pencil sharpener. Transparent Communication: Once goals are set, the transparency in the logic behind goals and … Copyright © 2004 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Please also see classroom routines and motivating students. Group Behaviour approach studies authority, influence of formal organization and social factors. influence of classroom management on student academic performance in history and government in public secondary schools in embu east district. Setting up the classroom can mean both physically and how the teacher structures the day. While there's no way to predict how home life will affect classroom management,you can adapt better and help student get through whatever they are feeling. The understanding of these factors has greatly helped management practitioners in real life situations. MISSION: ASCD empowers educators to achieve excellence in learning, teaching, and leading so that every child is healthy, safe, engaged, supported, and challenged. Effective teachers frequently provide students with cues to remind them of acceptable behavior, and effective teachers are good at organizing and maintaining a positive classroom environment (Education USA Special Report, n.d.). Before the new school year started, Mandrel met with his mentor to examine the classroom rules he had created. While Mandrel uses positive, negative, and neutral interventions about equally, he tends to focus on the positive a bit more. They are better managers of student behavior (Emmer et al., 1980). An exploratory study of effective and ineffective third-grade teachers found that ineffective teachers had five times as many disruptive events in an hour when compared with their more effective counterparts (Stronge et al., 2003). Effective classroom management involves clear Those visibly disengaged students certainly could be thinking about class, but they are not participating in class in the same manner as their peers. Suggest ways he can consolidate or reword them. The classroom has a lot of âattractive nuisancesâ in the back of the room near the sink area. _____ _________________________________________. What are next steps to improve my performance? The rules Mandrel created were all clearly stated in terms of the behavior. Well-planned instruction, which should include appropriate instructional activities like guided practice, attention to individual students, providing immediate feedback, and similar tasks tend to enhance order and effective learning. While they are more flexible than rules, routines or procedures are specific ways of doing things that, for the most part, vary little during the course of the day or the year. However, two of them were not reasonable because students would not be expected to follow them at all times. For frequent whole-group discussions, try a circle or U-shaped desk configuration. Self-esteem plays a major role in how students perform in school. Often, teachers use nonverbal cues, proximity, and redirection to prevent misbehavior. While mastering effective classroom management techniques takes work, effective teachers make classroom management look easy. He had not thought of this as a routine, just something he did that worked. Alexandria, VA 22311-1714, by James H. Stronge, Pamela D. Tucker and Jennifer L. Hindman. Group rules (Figure 3.3, p. 72) according to their commonalities. A well-organized classroom with routines and rituals helps students feel more secure. Classroom set-up and environment are not the only factors, which affect learning. Similarly, great instructional skills won't matter if students in the classroom are disengaged or out of control. critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, Effective teachers use routines for daily tasks more than their ineffective counterparts (Stronge, Tucker, & Ward, 2003). Mandrel used bins and color-coded accordion folders. classroom management as the most important factor influencing school learning. ... classroom management by Kounin and Gump (1961a, 1961b) is revealing in this regard. . At the secondary level when there are multiple preps separated by brief breaks, it can be helpful to have a plastic file folder holder affixed to the wall so the teacher can pull the necessary folder. For example, if you have a full classroom of 30 students, then the students in the back will not hear you as well. The nonverbal approaches are used to refocus students. The first step was for Mandrel to generate a list of what these recurring activities were. School Management March 2005 CBA ... United Nations Educational, Scientiﬁc and Cultural Organization A Training Manual for Educational Management. Rules 5 and 6 are about respecting the teacher's authority in the classroom. If Mandrel was uninvolved with students, the activity he was doing (e.g., grading papers) was noted under the âTaskâ column as well as what the students were doing. Keep plans in a binder that has divider pages for the different subjects/periods. Have a board for âworks in progressâ where students can post work on which they want constructive criticism from their peers (Thompson, 2002). Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. Teachers often have little control over issues such as temperature and leaky ceilings, but they greatly influence the operation of their classrooms. They agreed to meet after he introduced the first routineâchanging activities. Note any changes in the regular daily schedule in this location. They talked about how he could introduce the routine and practice it with students. In the cases where he used negative interventions, the students had already been warned about their behaviorâit was noted on the chart that the students already had their names on the board. At 50 minutes, Mandrel praised the students for their work. When students come into a classroom, they bring all the social stuff that happened that morning or the night before with them. Additionally, she recorded comments regarding off-task behavior and teacher responses. In my opinion, effective classroom management is supported by three primary pillars: clear rituals and routines, adequate student motivation, and effective classroom organization. Effective Classroom Management in Student-Centered Classrooms . When students arrive each day, their magnets are all on the magnetic chalkboard in the âWelcomeâ column. Mandrel also shared that he lines up students for lunch by calling for the students who are buying lunch or milk to be in the front of the line, so they can continue ahead in the cafeteria to the food service line while he leads the rest of the students to their assigned table. 4) Use dotted lines to show key walkways or spaces that need to stay open.
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