floral formula of asteraceae

The Asteraceae capitulum … It can represent a taxon , usually giving ranges of the numbers of different organs, or particular species. US Wildflower's Database of Family Asteraceae Wildflowers for All States Click on thumbnail for larger version of image, scientific name for detail page. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia, yarrow, and many others. Commercially important plants in Asteraceae include the food crops Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Cichorium (chicory), Cynara scolymus (globe artichoke), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) and Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke). It is one of the largest families of flowering plants. The filaments are fused to the corolla, while the anthers are generally connate (syngenesious anthers), thus forming a sort of tube around the style (theca). The calyx is represented by pappus. Flowers develop, at the apex of the plant, from June to September. [20] When a sunflower family flower head has only disc flowers that are sterile, male, or have both male and female parts, it is a discoid head. Asteraceae (PDF) PDF: Interactive Keys by Xiangying Wen : Acmella oleracea (Taiwan Invasive Species Database) Image/JPEG: Asteraceae From Wikipedia (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Web Page: Image/JPEG (Xiangying Wen) Image/JPEG: Asteraceae sp. (1963) Subfamilial Nomenclature of Compositae. The style has two lobes. Chrysanthemum, Zinnia etc. Ray florets are always highly zygomorphic and are characterised by the presence of a ligule, a strap-shaped structure on the edge of the corolla tube consisting of fused petals. They may be present in the form of small scales or hairs or bristles. Here is the floral formula for the Asteraceae (or Compositae). This is because the petals open at dawn and close at dusk. Compositae: Introduction with key to tribes. Cichorioideae: 224 genera, 3,200 species. A frequent arrangement of the Asteraceae capitulum consists of peripherally located ray flowers which are highly specialized in pollinator attraction, and disc flowers which assume the repr… In some species, however, the pappus falls off (for example in Helianthus). Floral formula: Distribution of Asteraceae: The family is commonly known as Sunflower family. It Fruits: Achenial one seeded cypselM made for undergraduate exam. The individual fruits are here called “achenes,” somewhat loosely. (2007) Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Asteraceae Plants of the Aster or Sunflower Family (Previously known as the Composite Family: Compositae) The uniqueness of the Aster or Sunflower family is that what first seems to be a single large flower is actually a composite of many smaller flowers. has taken the role of a single flower (like euphorbiaceae). These bracts are often called "chaff". There are many apomictic species in the family. The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex (particularly common among the Cichorioideae). Sunflower has two types of small flowers. The wormwood genus Artemisia includes absinthe (A. absinthium) and tarragon (A. dracunculus). Important Type. Asteraceae 1-Floral formula. Required fields are marked *. There are two basic kinds of flowers in the Asteraceae— disk flowers (=disk florets) are actinomorphic while ray flowers (=ray florets) are zygomorphic. Although there are two fused carpels, there is only one locule, and only one seed per fruit is formed. The study of this family is known as synantherology. Carpel: Bicarpellary; syncarpous; stigma bind ovary inferior; placentation basal. JEE Main, JEE Advanced, CBSE, NEET, IIT, free study packages, test ... Asteraceae (Compositae) Floral formula , characters & importance Selection_009 Floral formula of Sun Flower: pin. They are generally easy to distinguish from other plants, mainly because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. Pollen is released inside the tube and is collected around the growing style, and then, as the style elongates, is pushed out of the tube (nüdelspritze). They are pistillate or neuter. [20] The cluster of flowers that may appear to be a single flower, is called a head. Here is the floral formula for the Asteraceae (or Compositae). Winter tarragon (Tagetes lucida), is commonly grown and used as a tarragon substitute in climates where tarragon will not survive. (Xiangying Wen) Image/JPEG: Asteraceae sp. Calendula (known as pot marigold) is grown commercially for herbal teas and potpourri. [20], A radiate head has disc flowers surrounded by ray flowers. [24] The mature seeds usually have little endosperm or none. Sessile; ebracteate: aetinomorphic or zygomorphic: pentamerous Regular or irregular; complete or incomplete; unisexual Or hermaphrodite; epigynous; developed; generally represented by ring of 5 small teeth. Staminate heads have all male flowers. In the Asteroideae and other minor subfamilies these are usually borne only on florets at the circumference of the capitulum and have a 3+2 scheme – above the fused corolla tube, three very long fused petals form the ligule, with the other two petals being inconspicuously small. It is the largest family of Angiosperms. Lettuce has properties resemble to opium (. In addition, the … [20], Sometimes, but rarely, the head contains only a single flower, or has a single flowered pistillate (female) head, and a multi-flowered male staminate (male) head.[20]. There will be total 10 MCQ in this test. There are usually five stamens. [20] Disciform heads have only disc flowers, but may have two kinds (male flowers and female flowers) in one head, or may have different heads of two kinds (all male, or all female). These species generally have four free perianth segments that have a zygomorphic arrangement, four stamens with very short filaments that are joined to the perianth segments, and a gynoecium consisting of a single carpel with a superior ovary. Of these, many are invasive species in particular regions, often having been introduced by human agency. Helichrysum) or have a scarious (dry and membranous) texture. [32], Asteraceae are also used for some industrial purposes. The florets have five petals fused at the base to form a corolla tube and they may be either actinomorphic or zygomorphic. The tip of the ligule is often divided into teeth, each one representing a petal. Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,[4] or sunflower family), is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).[5][6]. [5][8] Which is the larger family is unclear, because of the uncertainty about how many extant species each family includes. They may simulate the sepals of the pseudanthium. [19], The pollen of composites is typically echinolophate, a morphological term meaning "with elaborate systems of ridges and spines dispersed around and between the apertures. There are two types of florets: In this case, two types of flowers are present in the capitula. These are mostly herbaceous but can also be brightly coloured (e.g. These form more than ten per cent of the total number of species of flowering plants. Your email address will not be published. Asteraceae vegetative feature inflorscn. [20] A ligulate flower is a 5-tipped, strap-shaped, individual flower in the heads of other members. [26], Members of the family are also commonly featured in medical and phytochemical journals because the sesquiterpene lactone compounds contained within them are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Plants with the given floral diagram Are dicots Have pinnately … Cape provinces, South Africa. [20] Sometimes, the 3:2 arrangement is reversed, with 2 tips on the tongue, and 0 or 3 tiny teeth opposite the tongue. Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are also shrubs, vines, or trees. General floral formula: * or ↓ K0 [C (5) A5 (connate)] G (2) inferior Hermaphrodite Asteraceae are protandrous, i.e., it first mature the male flower organs. [20] A ligulate head has all ligulate flowers. Have done my assignment without stress [20][21] Sometimes a ray flower is 2-tipped (2-lobed). Solidago produces relatively high protein pollen, which helps honey bees over winter. The latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, and has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. Many members of Asteraceae are pollinated by insects, which explains their value in attracting beneficial insects, but anemophily is also present (e.g. Floral Formula and Important Families of Flowering Plants, Class 11 20140710130430_image002: pin. The Virtual Floral Formula All of these flowers are from species in the Proteaceae. Anemochory (wind dispersal) is common, assisted by a hairy pappus. Common name:Asteraceae, Compositae Number of genera:Asteraceae is also known as Compositae. Congrats, not enough . [33], Some members of Asteraceae are economically important as weeds. French Marigold (Tagetes patula) is common in commercial poultry feeds and its oil is extracted for uses in cola and the cigarette industry. Mostly in Venezuela and Guyana. Certain plants are poisonous to livestock. 1. Latin America and southern United States. Gamopetalous; tubular with 5-5 lobed or ligulate with 3-4 teeth. Fruit Fruits have several bristles on the tip and are up to 0.2 in. really appreciable description of. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk (2002)[15] updated in 2014,[16] and now also includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae. There are two basic kinds of flowers in the Asteraceae— disk flowers (=disk florets) are actinomorphic while ray flowers (=ray florets) are zygomorphic. Characters of Arecaceae 2. [20] The corolla of the ray flower may have 2 tiny teeth opposite the 3-lobed strap, or tongue, indicating evolution by fusion from an originally 5-part corolla. [1] Barreda, et al. Annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs or small tree or climbers. Some marginal florets may have no petals at all (filiform floret). The ovary is inferior and has only one ovule, with basal placentation. Very efficient. The calyx is represented by pappus. The alternative name Compositae is still valid under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. As with the bracts, the nature of the pappus is an important diagnostic feature. [20] The entire head may move tracking the sun, like a "smart" solar panel, which maximizes reflectivity of the whole unit and can thereby attract more pollinators. Cypsela morphology is often used to help determine plant relationships at the genus and species level. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. & J. Presl, nom. This family includes 900 genera and about 13,000 species. These are sunflower. contains both, male and female sexual organs as androecium and gynoecium. Plants are used as herbs and in herbal teas and other beverages. They produce iso/chlorogenic acid, sesquiterpene lactones, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, various alkaloids, acetylenes (cyclic, aromatic, with vinyl end groups), tannins. These plants have composite 'flowers' which are actually flower-like inflorescences. Members of the Asteraceae are mostly herbaceous plants, but some shrubs, climbers and trees (such as Lachanodes arborea) do exist. Carduoideae: 83 genera, 2,500 species. (2015) estimated that the crown group of Asteraceae evolved at least 85.9 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Santonian) with a stem node age of 88–89 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian). Stigmatic tissue may be located in the interior surface or form two lateral lines. Corolla: Gamopetalous; tubular with 5-5 lobed or ligulate with 3-4 teeth. [20][21] Sometimes ray flowers may be slightly off from radial symmetry, or weakly bilaterally symmetric, as in the case of desert pincushions Chaenactis fremontii. Notable in the United States are Senecio jacobaea (ragwort), Senecio vulgaris (groundsel), and Taraxacum (dandelion). Some species have underground stems in the form of caudices or rhizomes. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs generally erect but can be prostrate to ascending. (ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE) Sunflower Family). They are tubular and bisexual. [5], Asteraceans are especially common in open and dry environments.[19]. [20] The overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families. [citation needed] Centaurea (knapweed), Helianthus annuus (domestic sunflower), and some species of Solidago (goldenrod) are major "honey plants" for beekeepers. Stamens: 5 stamens rarely 4; epipetalous; syngenesious (filament free anther united); formitig a tube which encloses style. Arctium) has hooks, spines or some structure to attach to the fur or plumage (or even clothes, as in the photo) of an animal just to fall off later far from its mother plant. In India this family is represented by about 138 genera a… Southwestern United States. They commonly have basal and/or apical appendages. A floral formula is a written shorthand used to represent the structure of a flower using the standard set of symbols shown at the right. The presence or absence of these bracts, their distribution on the receptacle, and their size and shape are all important diagnostic characteristics for genera and tribes. [1], It is still unknown whether the precise cause of their great success was the development of the highly specialised capitulum, their ability to store energy as fructans (mainly inulin), which is an advantage in relatively dry zones, or some combination of these and possibly other factors. [19] However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult (see "damned yellow composite" for example). Seed: non-endospermic seed. The vernacular name daisy, widely applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy (Bellis perennis): dæġes ēaġe, meaning "day's eye". Flowers of Asteraceae are actinomorphic i.e. The diamond denotes a very poorly supported node (<50% bootstrap support), the dot a poorly supported node (<80%).[5]. Some plants of this family are used as food Sonic of these are lettuce (fsi.–), roots and leaves of cichory. A 4+1 scheme is found in the Barnadesioideae. Asteraceae - Asteraceae - Flowers: The most obvious and outstanding general feature of Asteraceae is that the flowers are grouped characteristically into compact inflorescences (heads) that superficially resemble individual flowers. Propagation type:Seeds and fruits Distribution: The members of this family are distributed throughout the world. Examples include various tumbleweeds, Bidens, ragweeds, thistles, and dandelion. Absent from Europe, mostly in South America. Economic Importance of Papilionaceae. Example: Sunflower. [7] In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae. The use of floral formulas helps us see features … Floral Formulas and Family Facts Final + Plant of the Day - Botany 400 with Kent Systema at University of Wisconsin - Madison - StudyBlue The flowers in the receptacles are florets. Nearly all Asteraceae bear their flowers in dense heads (capitula or pseudanthia) surrounded by involucral bracts. Asteraceae; Sunflower family – General characters , floral formula , floral diagram , economic importance and common species Syed Muhmmad Muzammil Gilani June 20, 2019 Angiosperm families , Botany Gochnatioideae: 4 or 5 genera, 90 species. 2. AIPMT 1991: K(5) C(5) A(5) G(2) is floral formula of (A) liliaceae (B) solanaceae (C) asteraceae (D) fabaceae.. 6. The name Asteraceae (English: /ˌæstəˈreɪsi, -siˌaɪ, -siˌeɪ, -siˌiː/) comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae,[13] a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. (Inkata Press: Melbourne), "Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica", "Family: Asteraceae Bercht. South America, mainly the Andes. FAMILY 9: Cucurbitaceae – Gourd Family characters, Floral formula & species, FAMILY 10: Solanaceae (Potato Family) – Characters , Floral formula & importance, Chenopodiaceae Vegetables – characters , importance & pattern, Ranunculaceae family floral formula , characters & importance, Answer of Question of Reproduction & Development, DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES. 8. [20] The word "aster" means "star" in Greek, referring to the appearance of some family members, as a "star" surrounded by "rays". In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is actually a cluster of much smaller flowers. [31] Pollen from ragweed Ambrosia is among the main causes of so-called hay fever in the United States. Solbrig, O.T. Asteraceae (Compositae) The Asteraceae are herbs, shrubs, or less commonly trees and are arguably the largest family of flowering plants, comprising about 1,100 genera and 20,000 species that are characterized by having the flowers reduced and organized into an involucrate pseudanthium in the form of a head or capitulum. Economic Importance 4. Some of these molecules can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania and parasitic intestinal worms, and thus have potential in medicine. Ambrosia, Artemisia). [20] The whitish fluffy head of a dandelion, commonly blown on by children, is made of the pappus, with tiny seeds attached at the ends, whereby the pappus provides a parachute like structure to help the seed be carried away in the wind. The distinguishing characteristic of Asteraceae is their inflorescence, a type of specialised, composite flower head or pseudanthium, technically called a calathium or capitulum,[22][23] that may look superficially like a single flower. The pistil consists of two connate carpels. Allergy to these compounds is the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis in florists in the US. Asteraceae 1-Floral formula. They may be present in the form of small scales or hairs or bristles. [20] Food: Most of the important pulses are belonged to this family. asteraceae family in hindi//sun flower family//floral diagrame//floral formula The latter is the only kind of floret in the Carduoideae, while the first kind is more widespread. It has more than 1000 genera and 93000 species. [9]) It refers to the "composite" nature of the capitula, which consist of a few or many individual flowers. Asteraceae species have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are found everywhere except Antarctica and the extreme Arctic. [20] The individual heads have the smaller individual flowers arranged on a round or dome-like structure called the receptacle. Enlarged outer (peripheral) flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, and the involucral bracts may look like a calyx. 10. Sometimes bilabiate; (filament free anther united); formitig a tube which encloses style. 7. *ASTERACEAE Flower: Incomplete, Perfect or Imperfect). It is complete classification of a family enough for intermediate level. Ecological Threat Worldwide. ROSACEAE; Rose family – General characters , floral formula , floral diagram , economic importance and common species Syed Muhmmad Muzammil Gilani January 31, 2019 Angiosperm families , Botany , Rosaceae , Rose family Asteraceae, the aster, daisy, or composite family of the flowering-plant order Asterales. [citation needed], The genera Chrysanthemum, Pulicaria, Tagetes, and Tanacetum contain species with useful insecticidal properties. These can be fleshy or woody depending on the species.[10]. Question 1 of 10. In members of the Asteraceae the fruit is achene-like, and is called a cypsela (plural cypselae). ft is distribute all parts of the world. *=Multiple images on detail page Search Our Database: Enter any portion of the Scientific, Common Name, or both. [29], Many species of this family possess medicinal properties and are used as traditional antiparasitic medicine. 29–32, Pam MacKay, Mojave Desert Wildflowers, illustration p. 35. Usher, G. (1966) A dictionary of botany, including terms used in bio-chemistry, soil science, and statistics. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species ranging from subpolar to tropical regions, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. when cut through any vertical plane passing through the axis then two equal halves are formed and its symmetry remains undisturbed. [26], The oldest known fossils of members of Asteraceae are pollen grains from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica, dated to ∼76–66 Mya (Campanian to Maastrichtian) and assigned to the extant genus Dasyphyllum. Pages 61–87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. [29], A typical Asteraceae flower head showing the individual flowers (, A flower head showing the individual flowers opening from the outside (Chrysanthemum cultivar 'Bridesmaid'), Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275, Jeffrey, C. 2007. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed. These are called "phyllaries", or "involucral bracts". Flower: Sessile; ebracteate: aetinomorphic or zygomorphic: pentamerous Regular or irregular; complete or incomplete; unisexual Or hermaphrodite; epigynous; Floral Symmetry: ... Floral formula: * or X, K∞, C 5 , A 5 , G 2 ; achene Profile Diagram of Flower Transverse Diagram of Flower Tubular Flower Ligulate Flower _ -K.\ PAPPUS BRISTLES DISK OR TUBULAR FLOWER RAY OR LIGULATE FLOWER INVOLUCRAL BRACTS (PHYLLARIES) RECEPTACLE The family includes over 32,000 currently accepted species, in over 1,900 genera (list) in 13 subfamilies. It is the largest family of Angiosperms. Auld BA, Meld RW (1992) 'Weeds an illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia.' Many members of the family are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers, and some are important ornamental crops for the cut flower industry. The Asteraceae capitulum is an inflorescence that resembles and individual flower. Asteraceae (Compositae) Floral formula , characters & importance in Sunflower Family. Corymbioideae: Only the genus Corymbium, with 9 species. At the base of the head, and surrounding the flowers before opening, is a bundle of sepal-like bracts or scales called phyllaries, which together form the involucre that protects the individual flowers in the head before opening. The capitulum is a contracted raceme composed of numerous individual sessile flowers, called florets, all sharing the same receptacle. 12. The Asteraceae flower heads can be homogamous or heterogamous. Each floret may be subtended by a bract, called a "palea" or "receptacular bract". Corolla: Sympetalous, 5-lobed or 6-cleft, actinomorphic (in disc-florets) or zygomorphic or ligulate (in ray- florets). head is surrounded by one or more rings of bracts – the involucre with involucral bracts Worldwide. The ray florets are present towards the periphery. They have terpenoid essential oils which never contain iridoids. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five petal lips on the rim of the corolla tube. Sometimes bilabiate; and many other species are cultivated for extraction of oil. Floral diagram with floral formula (Helianthus annuus or sunflower): Some important plants of the family: Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Calendula officinalis (Englilsh marigold) Tanacetum coccineum (The painted daisy) Arctotis fastuosa (Monarch of the veld) Townsendia jonesii (Townsend daisy) Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) FLORAL FORMULA. The four major floral parts are always shown in the same order; sepals (CA), petals (CO), stamens (A), and carpels (G). Epizoochory is another common method, in which the dispersal unit, a single cypsela (e.g. Asia, Gymnarrhenoideae: Two genera/species, Gymnarrhena micrantha (Northern Africa, Middle East) and Cavea tanguensis (Eastern Himalayas). Technically, the specialized term cypsela for the peculiar fruit of the Asteraceae, derived from a 2-carpellate, inferior ovary is correct. The name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster, from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, and refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asteraceae&oldid=982133740, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Twelve species of Asteraceae from the subfamilies Asteroideae, Carduoideae and Cichorioideae, This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 10:42. The Cichorioideae has only ray florets, with a 5+0 scheme – all five petals form the ligule. Pulses are rich in proteins. Some examples are Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Calendula, Dendranthema, Argyranthemum, Dahlia, Tagetes, Zinnia, and many others.

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