In the prolonged struggle for independence, they were all but ruined, and the change from absolute monarchy to popular democracy was far from easy. The controversy between the Orientalists and the Anglicists was decided in favour of the latter by the famous Minute on Education of 1835 submitted by Thomas Babington Macaulay, the legal member of the governor-general’s executive council. Sir Thomas Elyot, in The Boke Named the Governour (1531), wrote the first treatise in English that dealt specifically with education. In the second half of the 20th century, secondary-school enrollments worldwide expanded from less than one-fifth to almost two-thirds of the relevant age-group. Girls who wanted a secondary school education similar to that of the boys transferred at the age of 13 to the Studienanstalt. The critical literature of the 1960s and ’70s attacked all institutions as conveyors of the motives and economic interests of the dominant class. The child is to feel that his nature is actually joined with the larger nature of things. Instruction usually continued long after the pupils had passed elementary age. The act of 1877 also revised the administrative structure under a national ministerial Department of Education. The 17th century in England (up to the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89) was one of argument over religious and political settlements bequeathed by Queen Elizabeth I; the period was one characterized by the confrontation of two different worldviews—on one side the royalist Cavaliers and on the other side the Puritans. Intermediate schools (Mittelschulen) were established for children who wished a longer and more advanced elementary school course and were able to pay modest fees. The study of rhetoric had five parts: (1) invention (the art of finding ideas, according to standard schemes), (2) disposition (the arrangement of words and sentences), (3) elocution, (4) mnemonics (memory training), (5) and action. Postsecondary education could be pursued at three leading institutions: the University of Liberia, sponsored by the government; Cuttington University College, administered and financially supported by the Episcopal church with some financial aid from the government; and the William V.S. A new system adopted in 1911 was similar to what was then in vogue in the United States. The early normal schools, or teacher-training schools, were primitive. Unlike Pestalozzi, however, Fichte was wary of the influence of parents and preferred educating children in a “separate and independent community,” at least until a new generation of parents had arisen, educated in the new ideas and ideals. Baldassare Castiglione expressed the transition of humanism from the city to the Renaissance court. Jacotot’s method emphasized first the practical side and then the rule, constant repetition, and self-activity on the part of the pupils. The simplest type of early Muslim education was offered in the mosques, where scholars who had congregated to discuss the QurÊ¾Än began before long to teach the religious sciences to interested adults. Outside there was a track for footraces, the stadion. The barbarians, however, did not destroy the empire; in fact, their entry was really in the form of vast migrations that swamped the existing and rapidly weakening Roman culture. The most important educational objectives of the sixth plan (1983–88) were (1) to strengthen training programs for all categories of manpower, (2) to establish technical trade schools and vocational institutes, (3) to provide adequate machinery, materials, and books for workshops, laboratories, and other facilities, and (4) to strengthen and develop centres for advanced engineering studies. At Bologna the term “college” long had a meaning different from the ordinary modern one. Fifth, there should be no compulsion. According to Rousseau, a woman should be the centre of the family, a housewife, and a mother. Although it lost some of its eastern lands to the Muslims in the 7th century, it lasted until Constantinople—the new capital founded by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great in 330—fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. As in the preceding era, education continued to be dependent upon the city, which remained the primary frame of Greek life. The differences had long been a matter of concern, as had the entrenchment of the higher levels of the teaching establishment. Education in Ethiopia, Liberia, and South Africa, however, must be treated separately—Ethiopia and Liberia because they have long histories as independent nations and South Africa because it was under the control of a white minority government for most of the century. Although a state could order parents to educate their children, it could not compel them to send their children to a public school. Such was the germ of the high school in the United States. Much of the teacher-training was in the form of short courses, and nonformal adult literacy classes multiplied at a rapid pace. The European expansion to new worlds overseas had stimulated commercial rivalry. Tokyo Imperial University borrowed much of the style and mode of the German universities and served as the model for the imperial universities established thereafter. Each of these theories partially explains the widespread increase in enrollments, as reported by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), in all levels of education during the last half of the 20th century. In the 20th century, governments established special institutions for Indians. This was social reform, not social revolution. There were officially appointed teachers in Constantinople in the 4th century, and in 425 the emperor Theodosius II established professorships of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy. Five years later, the General Court reinforced this enactment with yet another. While the 1950s and ’60s saw a great expansion of universities, the 1970s and ’80s saw rapid growth in postsecondary, nonuniversity education in provincially funded colleges. To stop the criticism, the ruler—who called himself the first emperor—acting upon the advice of a Legalist minister, decreed a clean break with the past and a banning of books on history and of classics glorifying past rulers. Statistics Canada disseminated organized statistical information on schools and on social factors affecting education. There continued to be a strong private (mainly Roman Catholic) interest in preschools and in teacher training for elementary and preschool levels. Schools were established in growing towns, and even day scholars were admitted. After the death of Stalin in 1953, changes in official policy affected both education and science. In Prussia, as elsewhere, the higher education of girls lagged far behind that of boys and received little attention from the state or municipality, except insofar as the services of women teachers were needed in the elementary schools. From the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, the history of secondary education was largely concerned with a struggle for a wider recognition of the work of the newer schools. From the first immigrant landing in 1788 through the early decades of the 19th century, education was provided on an occasional and rather haphazard basis, by the most expedient means available. Rejecting democracy and toleration as unscriptural, the Puritans put their trust in a theocracy of the elect that brooked no divergence from Puritan orthodoxy. Finally, in 1837, upon returning to Keilhau, he opened his first Kindergarten, or “garden of children,” in nearby Bad Blankenburg. The culture that Rabelais wanted for his two heroes was directly connected with the world in which they lived. Secular opposition to religious bias, even on a pluralistic basis, was, however, already evident. In consciousness there are ideas attracting other ideas so as to form complex systems. The higher schools were remodeled after the German Gymnasium and the French lycÃ©e and offered a seven-year course. Education empowers minds that will be able to conceive good thoughts and ideas. Later, however, after establishment of the republic, Chinese leaders felt that the Prussian-style Japanese education could no longer satisfy the aspirations of the republican era, and they turned to American schools for a model. These idea masses correspond to the many interests of the individual (such as his home and his hobbies) and to broader philosophical and religious concepts and values. Another important worker in the field of female education was St. Jane Frances de Chantal, who, together with her father confessor St. Francis de Sales, founded in 1610 the order of the Visitandines, a group dedicated to charitable work and the religious education of women. Girls and boys were taught in separate schools except when it was uneconomical to do so. No effective reorganization of the educational system was carried out until after the disaster of the Battle of Jena (1806), during the Napoleonic Wars, which brought about the virtual collapse of Prussia. Colet’s personality and energy made his school a lively centre of English humanism. The teaching profession still did not provide a living wage, for which reason can be read from a regulation of 1736: If the teacher is a workman he can already support himself; if he is not, then he is hereby allowed to go to work for daily wages for 6 weeks at harvest-time (Principia regulativa, clause 10). Junior colleges recruited from a wide population range and tended to be vigorous innovators. Religion was undoubtedly more important than education as such to the society, but its provision of reading materials as well as the mere act of establishing some kind of school filled a notable void in the Newfoundland settlement. The first scientific academies belong to the 16th century: in 1560, for instance, the Academia Secretorum Naturae (“Secret Academy of Nature”) was founded in Naples; in 1575 Philip II of Spain founded in Madrid the Academy of Mathematical Sciences. All philosophical teaching in the Byzantine world was concerned with the explanation of texts rather than with the analysis of problems. In Italian universities such controversies were considered endless and their effects pernicious. Founded in 1857, it undertook “to elevate the character and advance the interest of the teaching profession.” Despite its high mission, it had little influence until the 1870s, when it began to grow and prosper. This work was extended, and the Brethren eventually set up schools, first at Deventer and then in other cities. These can range from the provision of health care services and supplemental nutrition to improvements in school infrastructure that provide poorer children with basics such as school desks and chairs, electricity, and running water. The doctrines of Aristotle, which had been assiduously cultivated by the Muslims, were especially influential for their emphasis on the role of reason in human affairs and on the importance of the study of humankind in the present, as distinct from the earlier Christian preoccupation with the cultivation of faith as essential for the future life. Whatever their special character, to their very end they maintained their original purpose of bringing education into closer consonance with “the great and the real business of living,” as Phillips Academy of Andover, Massachusetts, phrased it when, in 1778, it held its first sessions. At the time of independence, elementary education consisted of teaching reading and writing, the religious and civil catechisms, and rudiments of arithmetic and geometry. Much could be said for the Chinese examination system at its best. The schools in Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan, for example, continued to be characterized by rigidity, formalism, high dropout rates, and limited relevance to national needs. Such a policy aroused bitter feelings among some educated Indians, since it was believed that Curzon was bent on bringing the entire system of education under government control. In Argentina the Lainez Law, decreed in 1905, authorized the National Council of Education to maintain, if need be, schools in the provinces. Such is the tenet that underlay the establishment of the free, tax-supported common school and high school. The compromise regarding school organization was representative of the British educational administration’s attempt to balance local and national interests delicately. Canadian educational development was consequently marked by eclectic, pragmatic actions rather than by philosophically or politically unified decisions. These ideas, first explored in Europe, notably in Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Ãmile (1762) and in Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi’s How Gertrude Teaches Her Children (1801), were implemented in American systems by pioneering educators such as Francis W. Parker. A monastery, however, educated only those who were its members. When their order was expelled in 1767, education was dealt a severe blow. In 1899 an advance was made toward the development of a national system encompassing both elementary and secondary education by creating a Board of Education as the central authority for education. The contribution of these institutions to the advancement of knowledge was vast. At the upper stages of the educational system, progress was significant, too; nevertheless, the secondary schools (gimnazii, realnyye uchilishcha) were only to a small degree attended by students of the lower classes, and the higher institutions even less. The government of India issued a resolution in January 1920 summarizing the report of the commission. The Protestant demand for universal elementary education. Black parents and students demanded recognition of their own language and culture (Africanization) as well as the access to the metropolitan culture of their own and other countries that English could provide. The lycÃ©es emphasized Classical studies through the study of Greek and Latin. Yet the search for a new methodology and a new relation with the ancient world was bitterly opposed by the traditionalists, who did not want renewal that would bring about a profound transformation of society; and, in fact, the educational revolution did not completely abolish existing traditions. Unfortunately for China and for the Manchu dynasty, conservative opposition was supported by the empress dowager Cixi, who took prompt and peremptory action to stop the reform movement. Although the U.S. Constitution has delegated educational authority to the states, which in turn passed on the responsibility for the daily administration of schools to local districts, there is no lack of federal counsel and assistance. In 1907 the period of compulsory education was extended from four to six years. The recommendations of the Currie Commission (1962) and the provisions of the Education Act of 1964 continued this direction. Generally speaking, in the first half of the 19th century the English school system was completely under the influence of the disciplinarian monitorial systems of Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster. Through collective bargaining and teachers’ strikes, it successfully obtained for teachers better wages, pensions, sick leaves, academic freedom, and other benefits. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the Moravian Mission, the Mission of Bremen, the Methodists, and Roman Catholic missionaries all established themselves on the Gold Coast (Ghana) between 1820 and 1881, opening elementary schools for boys and girls, a seminary, and eventually a secondary school (in 1909). He introduced the concepts of zero and decimals. The fundamental subjects were taught along with gymnastics and religion, which held important places in the curriculum. With Eton and Balliol in mind, Baron Curzon set up the Indian Universities Commission of 1902 to bring about a better order in higher education. The kuge lived an artistic life, so that the emphasis of education came to be placed on poetry, music, and calligraphy. To assist the missions, the government granted aid to those schools that met requirements based on specific government needs that changed with time. De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Ratione (1709; “On the Study Methods of Our Time”) defended the humanistic program of studies against what Vico took to be an encroachment by the rationalistic system of Descartes on the educational methods proper for youth. Computers became increasingly important in education, not only as a field of study but also as reference and teaching aids. Attention also focused on the Swedish approach to recurrent education, which introduced the idea of interchanging school and work as early as the secondary level. To train youth first in logic in the absence of common sense is to teach them to make judgments before they have the knowledge necessary to do so. Distrustful of the Chinese, they enlisted the services of many nationalities and employed non-Chinese aliens. It was the same with philosophy: resuming Cicero’s enterprise at a distance of more than five centuries, Boethius (c. 480–524) in his turn sought with his manuals and his translations to make the study of that discipline available in Latin. The humanities as well as such practical subjects as science, medicine, mathematics, and geometry were in the hands of the priests, who taught in formal schools. al. In the 1980s the deep economic crisis in Latin America proved to be the greatest influence on education, obstructing all renovation or modernization of public education. Perhaps its most original contribution was the extension of the idea of education at the elementary level. Luther specifically wished his humble social origins to be considered a title of nobility. Oral instruction and teaching by example were the chief methods of education. Unofficially, they have sometimes played a role in political life. Within this structure the rector of a university headed a teaching body, recruited by the state and supervised by an inspectorate, ranging through various grades up to the university council. The cost of secondary education was diminishing, and the distinction in level and curriculum between the secondary and the elementary school was sharpened in the system of public schools. From Moorish Spain came Christian refugees who also contributed to this intellectual revival; disputations with the Muslims had forced them to develop a dialectic skill in which they now instructed Charlemagne’s subjects. Canada’s federal government had no constitutional authority in education and therefore maintained no general office dealing directly with educational matters. They had no assistants and used no textbooks. (2) Develop and use models. In 1663 Bishop Laval established in the city of QuÃ©bec the grand sÃ©minaire as the apex of the educational “system,” as the first French Canadian “university.” Shortly thereafter he also established the preparatory petit sÃ©minaire. Except for two capable emperors, who ruled for a span of 135 years at the beginning, the Manchu dynasty was weak and undistinguished. As the independent Department of Education from 1980, this agency took a vigorous role in stating national positions and in researching questions of overall interest. One piece of work should be fully completed before progress is made to the next piece, and there should be constant repetition and practice. Still more distasteful was the fact that public schooling would occasion a rise in taxes. This was designed not only to advance scholarship but also to train teachers. Erasmus was in favour of acquiring a good general liberal arts education until the age of 18, being convinced that this would be a preparation for any form of further study. The two extremes in secondary development were probably represented by Quebec and the west. Though their education was to include the classics, it was to be supplemented by the needs of the new mercantile class—the national English language, manual arts, drawing, music, and all forms of sport. In Ratio studiorum, an elaborate plan of studies issued by the Jesuits in 1599, there is laid out an organization of these institutions down to the smallest details. The new vernacular writing, known as baihua (“plain speech”), won immediate popularity. Whatever we learn through our parents and teachers goes with us throughout the life which we again pass on to our next generation. Internal reviews, undergraduate curriculum reforms, and the high standards set by some universities demonstrated to some observers that quality education was being maintained in the university. Islam placed a high value on education, and, as the faith spread among diverse peoples, education became an important channel through which to create a universal and cohesive social order. In 1209 a body of students migrated there from Oxford. Development of national systems of education. The alien Manchu rulers concentrated on the preservation of what seemed best for stability and the maintenance of the status quo. Thus, policies were constructed with regard to the rights and advantages of British seamen, while implicitly, as well as in overt regulations, settlement was obstructed and restricted. Indeed, the very strength and tenacity of the family unit may well have retarded development of a more formal educational structure. Education also had a moral aspect, aiming at inculcating rural virtues, a respect for good management of one’s patrimony, and a sense of austerity and frugality. Because of its fame, Nalanda attracted students from abroad, but the admission test was so strict that only two or three out of 10 attained admission. The first high school in the United States opened in Boston in 1821 as the English Classical School, a designation that soon was changed to English High School. The rulers of Song were receptive to new ideas and innovative policies. They reconstructed the past in order better to understand themselves and their own time. The Chinese thus faced the keenest competition in the examinations, and those who passed tended to be brilliant intellects, whereas the Manchus could be assured of success without great effort. In particular, teachers of the “literary” arts, grammar and rhetoric, always had great success in a period of enthusiasm for the ancient authors. The dispute over the correct religious dogma—fought for almost 200 years with the utmost strength, controversy, and academic subtlety and reaching its terrible culmination in the Thirty Years’ War—led to a certain ill feeling against dogmatically sanctioned religious revelation. Several new universities were founded during the 19th century, and the latter half of it saw the founding of a number of girls’ high schools and boarding schools offering an education that was comparable to that available in boys’ public schools and grammar schools. This required revisions of textbooks, new consciousness about language, and change in criteria for admission to higher levels. During this period, sons of the nobility received their education at the court of the prince in the setting of a guild companionship of warriors: the young nobleman was educated through the counsel and example of an older man to whom he had been entrusted or had entrusted himself, a senior admired and loved. Education should be literally a drawing-out of this self-power, a development of abilities through activity—in the physical field by encouraging manual work and exercises, in the moral field by stimulating the habit of moral actions, and in the intellectual field by eliciting the correct use of the senses in observing concrete things accurately and making judgments upon them. In Gargantua this cult of liberty was celebrated in the utopian Abbey of ThÃ©lÃ¨me, where all could live according to their own pleasure but where the love of learning was so great that everyone was dedicated to it—getting much better results than those obtained at the medieval universities. In that same year the University of Tokyo was founded, with four faculties—law, physical sciences, literature, and medicine. They were essentially palaestrae, or open-air, square-shaped sports grounds surrounded by colonnades in which were set up the necessary services: cloakrooms, washstands, training rooms, massage rooms, and classrooms. Entrance to Italian universities was gained by successful completion of any of the upper secondary alternatives. The Great Didactic (1657) sets forth Comenius’s methodology—one for the arts, another for the sciences. Western civilization was profoundly influenced by the rapid rise and expansion of Islam from the 7th until the 15th century. The use of learning packages and degree programs exported from the metropolitan centres of North America, Europe, and the Pacific (notably Australia) to the countries of the Southern Hemisphere, while providing opportunity for advanced studies, may also include culturally inappropriate content, disregard for traditional knowledge, and the displacement of local languages by an international lingua franca, such as English. Toward the 6th century the assimilation of Chinese civilization became more and more rapid, particularly as a result of the spread of Confucianism. Education was free from the kindergarten to the university level in all state and state-aided institutions. Upon taking office, however, the Labour government, instead of legislating, issued a circular in the belief that this would enlist local support and encourage local initiative. The commission made a number of important recommendations—namely, to limit the size of the university senates, to entrust teaching in addition to examining powers to universities, to insist on a high educational standard from affiliated colleges, to grant additional state aids to universities, to improve courses of studies, to abolish second-grade colleges, and to fix a minimum rate of fees in the affiliated colleges. It had the authority to enquire into the financial methods of the universities and to allocate grants. There was also concern about the financial difficulties of the different states, the unsuitability of current educational systems to local needs, the waste and duplications in primary and secondary education, and the insufficient liaison between educational policy makers and the planners of economic and social development. Teachers’ salaries, which had been lower than other professional incomes, were raised. The early development of educational systems before and around the turn of the 20th century was a crude beginning, the minimal provisions being accentuated by poor teacher preparation, administrative thrift schemes, and excess in the exercise of administrative authority. The resultant organization was stable but open to change on the same principles. The Central Council initiated a sustained school reform debate that set the stage for the establishment, in 1984, of an advisory council on educational reform, which was directly responsible to the prime minister. The main functions of educational supervision were usually carried out through specific directorates for such areas as curriculum, examinations, vocational education, teacher training and certification, and adult education. While Marxism would provide a foundation, the particular needs of Mozambique would be addressed. Comenius’s philosophy was both humanitarian and universalistic. Educational reforms nevertheless continued, albeit slowly. Other provinces eventually developed patterns that represented compromises. To be sure, the philosophical work of Cicero had the same ambition as his oratorical work and proved by its existence that it was possible to philosophize in Latin, but philosophy found no successors to Cicero as rhetoric did. The intellectual energies were channeled into a few movements of great significance. Physical education had a like part, equally for both sexes, given status by national or international contests; the Spartans regularly took more than half of the first places at the Olympic Games. The dominant fact is the extraordinary continuity of the methods of Roman education throughout such a long succession of centuries. The historical principle of maintaining minority rights resulted in a truly pluralistic cultural concept, recognized to some extent in religious and linguistic concessions in schools. The foundation of secondary schools for girls was in its way one of the most notable achievements of the Third Republic. Employers tend to seek highly schooled individuals while depending on the education system to prepare and distinguish job candidates. Nothing better demonstrates the prestige and the allure of Classical culture than the attitude taken toward it by the Christians. It was the first comprehensive national plan to offer schooling nationwide, according to which the country was divided into eight university districts, which were further divided into 32 middle school districts, each accommodating 210 primary school districts. Efforts were accelerated to improve the teacher-training system: the previously discriminatory qualifications required for primary and secondary teachers as well as for teachers from the different racial groups were standardized. The Christian missionaries had started their educational activities as early as 1542, upon the arrival of St. Francis Xavier. During part of the 19th century, for instance, the University of the Republic in Montevideo maintained its ties with the church.
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