I’ve never played with Tommy before. The effects of a person’s physical attractiveness go beyond how we evaluate or how much we are influenced by that person; it can also change our perceptions of the people with whom he or she is associated. White, G. (1980). They think of nothing but money; that is why there are so many Jewish bankers. Like most of the nonsmokers in the survey, she should. Accordingly, when these people experienced the epinephrine-produced symptoms, they had an appropriate explanation. But they do not constitute scientific evidence and, therefore, are not convincing in themselves. Accordingly, scientists have turned to experiments with nonhuman species to gain additional insight into the extent to which aggression may be hardwired. Mom sternly announces, “Rachel, put that junk back on the shelf. One possibility is that Kennedy may have been “too perfect.” What does that mean? Roiphe, K. (1994) The morning after: Sex, fear, and feminism. People tend to protect their sense of freedom. Moreover, as research99 has demonstrated, even people skeptical of astrology can be swayed if the Barnum statement is both believable and positive. American Psychologist, 52, 994–995. They painstakingly went over the original manuscript, page by page and line by line, making numerous suggestions and criticisms that had a significant impact on the final form of this book. Specifically, the residents of this village believed, and helped spread rumors to the effect, that (1) a flood was rushing toward them; (2) February 26 would be a day of deluge and destruction; (3) there would be another severe earthquake on the day of the lunar eclipse; (4) there would be a cyclone within a few days; and (5) unforeseeable calamities were on the horizon. Increasing compliance by legitimizing paltry contributions: When even a penny helps. How do people respond when they are actually in the situation? 4, pp. The Importance of Random Assignment Control is an important aspect of the laboratory experiment, but it is not the major advantage. Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study of bias toward homosexual applicants. The child in the mild-threat situation experiences dissonance, too. In one experiment, Steele and Aronson administered a difficult verbal test (the Graduate Record Examination), individually to black and white college students. American Psychologist, 16, 105–112. Newsweek, April 28, 1986, p. 22. See also Prejudice credibility and, 78–79 mass media and, 60–61 political advertising and, 70–71 representative heuristics and, 138 urban riots and, 271, 273, 274, 288–289 Random assignment, 413–417 Rape blaming the victim of, 324 media depictions of, 60, 284–288 Reactance, 104–105 Realism experimental vs. mundane, 418–419 Subject Index 509 Recency effect, 95–97 Reciprocity in attraction, 378–380 in communal relationships, 387–388 Reconstructive memory, 148–151 Recovered memory syndrome, 153–157 Reference points, 123–124 Rejection aggression and, 274–276 anticipation of, 381 fear of, 380–381 Relationships. When it comes to physical aggression, the answer appears to be yes. White, H. (1997). My point is simple but important: No code of ethics can anticipate all problems, especially those created when participants discover something unpleasant about themselves or others in the course of their participation. Chapter 5 459 13. They then prepared a set of questions that they would like to ask this person to get to know him or her. Given the problems associated with sexual scripts and the unpleasant (and occasionally tragic) consequences of misread desires and intentions, it is understandable that college administrators would resort to this extreme precaution. . ), The self and social life (pp. See Politics Emotion components of, 32–33 definition of, 32 in persuasion, 84–90 social influence and, 32–34 Emotional contagion, 64–66 Empathy, 297–298 jigsaw technique and, 353 prejudice and, 353 Environmental influences, 9–11 Equal-status contact, prejudice and, 340–341, 345 Eros, 255–256 Escalation, of violence, 265–267 Ethical aspects, of experiments, 56–57, 422–429 Ethnic prejudice. In most situations, committing or condoning violence does not reduce the tendency toward violence. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207–232. By the same token, consider the topic of sex education in the schools as viewed by a member of the Christian Right, on the one hand, or by an editor of Playboy magazine, on the other hand. Chapter 7 477 71. 153–186). I’m even fairly certain we could convince most people that the arguments were sound; clearly, most people would agree that war is hell and violence in the streets is undesirable. Libri Sapientis: Horti Novabaculae, Rome. Although the women were led to believe the discussion was a live, ongoing one, what they actually heard was a prerecorded tape. This phenomenon transcends historical significance; it seems to have enduring psychological effects, as well. This sexual activity functions to diffuse potential conflict For example, when the group arrives at a feeding ground, they first engage in communal sex, and then proceed to eat peacefully. Sure we teased them. Although he enjoys Alice’s vivacity, he appears to be afraid of the possibility that, with increasing age, he may be losing his own attractiveness as a man. Kenrick, D. T., & Gutierres, S. E. (1980). As you stand there in dismay and discomfort, hopping from one foot to the other, the door on your left opens and out strolls a distinguished-looking gentleman. Nisbett, R., & Ross, L. (1980). In another condition, he argued that courts should be more lenient and sentences less severe. Control is further limited by the fact that individuals differ from one another in countless subtle ways. New York: Knopf. Some of the students were offered $20 for telling the lie; others were offered only $1 for telling the lie. Ironically enough, these factors tend to produce a diminution of his selfesteem—the very factor that influenced the Supreme Court decision in the first place. 87. Attitude structure and function (pp. 22. This scenario was actually staged by Madeline Heilman,66 and the results confirmed her prediction that, under most circumstances, the more intense the attempts to prevent participants from signing the petition, the more likely they were to sign. Children in jigsaw classrooms performed better on objective exams, grew to like each other better, developed a greater liking for school and greater self-esteem than children in traditional classrooms. Buss, D. (2004). These five causes are not mutually exclusive—indeed, they may all operate at once— but it would be helpful to determine the importance of each one because any action we are apt to recommend in an attempt to reduce prejudice will depend on what we believe to be the major cause of prejudice. Nearly half a century ago biologist Zing Yang Kuo7 attempted to demonstrate that this was a myth. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5, 461–476. They come to believe that a particular thing is true, not because J. Robert Oppenheimer or T. S. Eliot or Joe “The Shoulder” convinced them it is true, but because they have convinced themselves. They can be considered propaganda. Try that.” In the mind of the gangster, “hit” means “kill.” So De Niro promptly whips out his gun, and fires several bullets into a pillow. 13. Since you are the most important person in my world, it would be particularly gratifying to me if you would acknowledge statements of mine that you think are intelligent or worthwhile. Behavior in a catastrophic situation: A psychological study of reports and rumours. Let me summarize what we have been saying in this section: There are four distinct reasons that exposure to violence via the media might increase aggression. Causal inferences about communicators and their effect on opinion change. 85. Internalization is the most permanent response to social influence precisely because your motivation to be right is a powerful and self-sustaining force that does not depend upon constant surveillance in the form of agents of reward or punishment, as does compliance, or on your continued esteem for another person or group, as does identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 459–467. My guess is that he will begin to reexamine his beliefs about blacks. How do you solve that problem? Enhanced role-taking through cooperative interdependence: A field study. During an anti-war protest at Kent State University, four students were shot and killed by the Ohio National Guard. Still another form of external justification is reward. Although this may sound like an outlandish explanation, it is certainly possible. In their study, groups that engaged in a cooperative task were more cooperative in a subsequent negotiation with another group than groups that had initially worked in a competitive fashion. There are compelling situations in which conformity can be disastrous and tragic. At one point, it was suggested that the electronic media might be prolonging the ordeal by giving so much free publicity to the Shiite cause. The students see Dr. Mensch in only one role—that of teacher. Now, instead of only one expert (the teacher), each student was an expert on his or her own segment. Thus, although it made Sam vulnerable to admit he envied Harry, it opened the door to communication; eventually, it helped them to understand each other. In 1986, U.S. warplanes bombed Libya in retaliation for an upsurge in that country’s acts of terrorism. We will attempt to zero in on the phenomenon of conformity by beginning with a less extreme (and perhaps simpler) illustration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 100–108. In these experiments, not only did the children imitate the aggressive models, they also engaged in other forms of aggressive behavior after having witnessed the aggressive behavior of the adult. Is Aggression Useful? . A great many events occurred among Jones’s followers in addition to the gradual increases in commitment I have described. Through increasing my ability to recognize the benefits of admitting my errors in terms of my own growth and learning as well as my ability to form close, meaningful relationships with other people. The principles of psychology (pp. For the next year, Pierce said, he was subjected to “verbal slurs, insults [and] derogatory remarks,” including taunting by other firefighters who barked like dogs and asked him how dog food tasted. See also Rejection; Selfesteem attraction and, 379–381 Instrumental aggression, 255 Intelligence tests fear of rejection and, 381 stereotype threat and, 320–322 Internalizaton, 37–41 Internal justification, 208–209. But there is another organism to consider—the bonobo, our equally close genetic relative, which evolved from the same ancestor as the chimpanzee. The Psychology of Inadequate Justification Attitude change as a means of reducing dissonance is not, of course, limited to postdecision situations. 80–90. Indeed, we use the word love to describe such diverse relationships as those between passionate teenagers (like Romeo and Juliet), new couples in the throes of excited discovery, couples who have been together for decades, and close friends. Some of these children were subsequently provided with a reasonable and unspiteful explanation for the behavior of the child who fouled them up. Half the time, the confederate was made up to look attractive; the other half of the time, she was made to look quite plain. One tactic for doing this is to promote empathy by role-playing the other’s point of view.91 Another tactic, used on the international front, is cultural exchange programs in which citizens of one country live in another. A “jigsaw classroom” technique for undergraduate statistics courses. Journal of Personality, 32, 531–549. 11. The Social Animal by Elliot Aronson. You’d probably smile more, disclose more about yourself, and generally behave in a warmer, more interested, more likable manner than if you hadn’t already learned that I liked you. This was especially true if they held overly optimistic perceptions concerning their chances of recovery from disease or believed that they could control the likelihood of future victimization. Aronson has made it his life work to constantly update the book as new research improved on our understanding of social psychology, so âThe Social Animalâ¦ According to Freud,6 society performs an essential function in regulating this instinct and in helping people to sublimate it—that is, to turn the destructive energy into acceptable or useful behavior. Technical reviews (pp. Note how, by using a cover story that contains a cover story involving “interpersonal attraction,” we were able to accomplish our aim without arousing much suspicion; only 4 of 84 subjects were suspicious of this procedure. See also Stereotypes Aggression/violence, 253–299. Walster, E., Walster, G. W., & Traupmann, J. 92. This is what is happening with the young woman who doesn’t smoke and therefore finds it Self-Justification 187 easy to accept the notion that smoking causes lung cancer. Chronicle of Higher Education. Cicero (46 BC). In fact, Patrick Reynolds, who inherited millions of dollars from the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, founded by his grandfather, took a strong public stand against smoking and encouraged victims of smoking-related illnesses to file lawsuits against tobacco companies!33 The trustworthiness of a person can also be increased if the audience is absolutely certain the person is not trying to influence them. In Nazi Germany, the scapegoats were the Jews; in 19th-century California, they were Chinese immigrants; in the rural South, they were black people. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 48–58. The story might go something like this. New York: Cambridge University Press. Gerbner, G. (1996). In one such experiment, 100 college students interacted with a fellow student who had been portrayed as a former mental patient. Latane, B., & Rodin, J. How might Phil have communicated differently? Not only is there a high correlation between the amount of violent TV watched and the viewer’s subsequent aggressiveness, but the impact also accumulates over time; that is, the strength of the correlation increases with age. But those subjects who were motivated to improve the ability of their students to solve anagrams rated as more intelligent those who started poorly but ended up doing well. But the children who had participated in the jigsaw classroom responded differently. So it is possible that neither causal sequence is true. Moreover, violence occurred in those places where ambiguous or inconsistent policies were employed or where community leaders tended to vacillate. Important judgments we make about ourselves can also be powerfully influenced by contrast effects. Our goal was to determine if severity of initiation—the independent variable—caused systematic differences in participants’ behavior. 35. What happened? The results confirmed our predictions: The subjects in the gain condition liked the confederate significantly better than those in the positive condition. It is more painful to Social Cognition 131 give up $20 than it is pleasurable to gain $20. My guess is that, if the jigsaw strategy had been used in Columbine High School (or in the elementary and middle schools that feed into Columbine), the tragedy could have been avoided and those youngsters would be alive today. What is going on in this situation? We could have rated each group’s initiation for severity and interviewed the members later to determine how much Social Psychology as a Science 413 they liked their group. A major portion of television programming consists of crime shows—the average 15-year-old has viewed more than 13,000 television killings. Baumeister, R. (1991). Perhaps most troubling, research continually shows that the more television you watch the more you see the world as a sinister place, where people are just looking out for themselves and would take advantage of you if they had a chance. 18. In other words, people with low selfesteem will not find it terribly difficult to commit immoral acts—because committing immoral acts is not dissonant with their self-concept. Watch out. On the other hand, if she misses, she might claim that she was fouled or that there was a soft spot in the floor that led to a mistiming of her jump. I am a white male, for instance, but also a professor, a Californian, a senior 322 The Social Animal citizen, and so on. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday. And guess who made up most of the audience for the program on Italian Americans? The world was profoundly shocked by the idea of a congested city being attacked from the air. ), Recent developments in alcoholism (Vol. 36. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 156–171. Darley, J. M., & Gross, P. H. (1983). When the participants heard this, each and every one indicated she would have no difficulty. None of these responses is particularly productive. It probably won’t surprise anyone to learn that good looks play an important role among early adolescents, as well as in children and adults. If she doesn’t express this anger, I may never become aware that what I did made her angry. . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1046–1066. 5. 10. We will look at each of these separately. (1916). The unrewarded group spent more free time on the task than the rewarded group—whose interest waned when no rewards were forthcoming. The cognition “cigarette smoking produces cancer” is consonant with the cognition “I do not smoke.” But, for most people, it is not easy to give up smoking. This is not the case when you are performing experiments with chemicals, with laboratory animals, or even with humans in nonsocial situations. Bolstering self-esteem is unlikely to produce positive effects if it is done in an artificial or superficial way. It could be due to historical causes: The blacks were slaves, and the Civil War was fought over the issue of slavery, creating the climate for greater prejudice. For example, if we have a general picture of our childhood as having been unhappy, and our parents as having been cold and distant, any events from our childhood that violate that general picture will be more difficult to recall than events that support it. The process of causal attribution. For example, considering arguments about how to remedy an ailing 74 The Social Animal economy has to do with the central route; getting scared and angry by the image of Willie Horton has to do with the peripheral route. Berkowitz, L. (1993). Chances are that causality flows in both directions. Illusory correlation in observational report. . The participants in the control condition were more thoroughly convinced by the communication than were those who had been forewarned. Secord, P., & Backman, C. (1964). (1974). New York: Academic Press. Let me give you one example of what I mean by that statement. At the very least, our knowledge of the fundamental attribution error should alert us to the possibility that our attributions may not always be correct and that we should take seriously the motto of the English Protestant reformer John Bradford: “There, but for the grace of God, go I.” The Actor-Observer Bias Another common bias in social judgment is known as the actor-observer bias—the tendency for actors to attribute their own actions to situational factors, whereas observers tend to attribute the same actions to stable personality dispositions of the actors.88 For example, in my judgment, I go to the beach a lot because the weather is beautiful; but, in my judgment, you go to the beach a lot because you are probably a beach bum. Who’d be dumb enough to pay so much for this shack?” Certainly not you, and probably not anyone else. The effects can be extremely powerful. 101. Careful experiments have shown that a judge of the juvenile court is better than most people at swaying opinion about juvenile delinquency, that a famous poet and critic can sway opinion about the merits of a poem, and that a medical journal can sway opinion about whether antihistamines should be dispensed without a prescription. The fear was that this would make them more vulnerable to propaganda. Why then at the trial had both of these witnesses so confidently placed Hennis at the scene of the crime? There is much evidence to support Berkowitz’s contention that, among humans, innate patterns of behavior are infinitely modifiable and flexible. ), Collected papers (Vol. When I mentioned that ignoring potential danger to reduce dissonance could conceivably lead to a person’s death, I meant that literally. Milgram, S. (1974). For example, teachers often judge the intelligence of their students, but they have a hand in teaching and influencing those performances upon which they will base their judgments. Physical activity—like punching a punching bag— seems neither to dissipate anger nor to reduce subsequent aggression against the person who provoked our anger. For a compelling illustration, let’s go back to the 1988 presidential campaign between George Bush (the elder) and Michael Dukakis, former governor of Massachusetts. Tocqueville, A. de. If it’s a new model, long-term repair data simply do not exist. Aristotle. Nisbett, R., & Wilson, T. (1977). But the interpretations of bystanders can also influence perceptions in the opposite direction. New York: Basic Books. For example, women from Australia and New Zealand showed greater evidence of physical aggressiveness than did men from Sweden and Korea. Because she was obviously not trying to influence you, you might be more readily influenced. We can best test these hypotheses under the sterile conditions of the laboratory; and to try to keep our ideas from becoming sterile, we attempt to take our laboratory findings back out through the window to see if they hold up in the real world. The experimenter told her she was going to assist him in performing a verbal conditioning experiment on the other student; that is, he was going to reward the other student for certain words she used in conversation. When communicators are not trying to influence us, their potential to do so is increased. The new edition of this venerable text retains Elliot Aronson's clear, engaging narrative voice, while adding the scholarly insights of a new coauthorâhis son, New York University professor, Joshua Aronson. This was accomplished by building up the expectation that they would be shown a series of entertaining movies and be allowed to have fun. It seems that, under these circumstances, individuals are more willing to take responsibility for each other. Some effects of violent and nonviolent movies on the behavior of juvenile delinquents. Physical attractiveness and children’s expectations of potential teachers. Shelley Taylor, a cognitive social psychologist, argues that the “vividness” effect is not supported by a majority of the experimental findings. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 486–493. I think I was right. 19. After several trials, the individual will refuse to smoke. He is about to tell her how awful he thinks it is when she says proudly, “How do you like the painting? For her birthday, she received a Suzie Homemaker baking and cooking set complete with “her own little oven.” Her parents chose this present because she seems 4 The Social Animal very interested in culinary things and is forever helping Mommy set the table, prepare the meals, and clean the house. “And if you had a hole that size in your wall, wouldn’t you want to patch it up? In high school, there is an iron-clad hierarchy of cliques with athletes, class officers, cheerleaders, and “preppies” at the top. In that chapter we suggested how important empathy is in curbing aggression. I want to inform you that he raped my stepdaughter, a seventh grader. Their physical proximity may simply make it easier to get to know them, and once we get to know them, we tend to like them. Following a decision— especially a difficult one, or one that involves a significant amount of time, effort, or money—people almost always experience dissonance. They were into witchcraft. Under another photograph, black people who were doing the same thing were described as “looting.” The implicit prejudice linking black people with violent and criminal behavior may be extremely subtle, almost invisible, but no less powerful. In an experiment by Michael Conway and Michael Ross,52 one group of students participated in a study-skills course that promised more than it actually delivered; another group of students signed up but did not participate. After the discussion, each member was shown how the others rated him; in actuality, the members were given prearranged false feedback. The other toys were sickly by comparison. There is clear evidence that the physiological response to pain (as measured by the galvanic skin response) was somewhat less intense in the high-dissonance condition. Liberating effects of group pressure. Are effective communicators interpretation of cognitive dissonance is unfair to minority groups, leadership and men ( pp such,... 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